Black Emigration MOVEMENTS - Foreign Support and Opposition, 1787-1865
BACKGROUND ON BLACK EMIGRATION MOVEMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES
Throughout the antebellum period, black emigration was a volatile and divisive element of the American slavery debate. At various points between 1787 and 1865, advocates of this idea sponsored and facilitated free black immigration to Sierra Leone, Liberia and Haiti. These movements were controversial for two reasons. First, within the antislavery movement they precipitated bitter disputes regarding the effect of free black emigration on the institution of slavery. Before 1830, many antislavery advocates believed that emigration programs, like that of the American Colonization Society (ACS), would encourage gradual emancipations throughout the South. Their efforts received substantial support from British philanthropists and Great Britain's Sierra Leone colony. Black antislavery leaders, in general, strongly disagreed, characterizing emigration as a racist idea that had the potential to reinforce American slavery.(1) After 1830, this opposition group was joined by members of the newly formed American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) and by many British antislavery advocates, some of whom had formerly supported the ACS.
The second reason for this issue's volatility was that it touched on a highly sensitive racial question: Should freeborn blacks and emancipated slaves have equal rights and opportunities in American society? Emigration proponents held a variety of opinions on this subject. Many white supporters, a substantial portion of whom opposed slavery, did not believe in equal rights;(2) not surprisingly, the small black population that supported emigration did. Where their viewpoints coalesced was on the prospects for equal rights in the United States. For the most part, emigrationists believed that blacks needed to leave the country if they wanted a chance at the rights of full citizenship within a society. Their belief rested on the assumption that American racism was inveterate and ineradicable.(3) Critics of emigration argued against this logic and, in many cases, accused emigrationists of hiding a racist agenda behind philanthropic motives.(4) In published criticisms of the ACS, for example, antislavery leaders asserted that the ACS's true objective was to rid the United States of a race that its members believed was fundamentally unequal. Interestingly, by the 1850s, a portion of black abolitionists had come to share the emigrationists' belief in the insurmountability of American racism.(5) To the dismay of fellow antislavery advocates like Frederick Douglass, men like Martin Delany and Henry Highland Garnet reversed their former stances and began promoting emigration as the best option available to the American free black community.
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THE FOREIGN ORIGINS OF EARLY BLACK EMIGRATION MOVEMENTS, 1787-1830
Great Britain’s free black colony had a formative influence on American black emigration movements. British philanthropists had established it in 1787 primarily as a destination for a group of impoverished free blacks living in London.(6) During the late 1780s and 1790s, American antislavery leaders like John Jay and Samuel Hopkins corresponded with some of the colony's main sponsors - including John Erskine, Zachary Macaulay and Granville Sharp - in order to better understand the colony's condition and to assess its willingness to accept American settlers. See, for example, “Correspondence between Samuel Hopkins and Granville Sharp” (1789), “Letter from Granville Sharp to John Jay” (1789) and “Letters from Zachary Macaulay to Samuel Hopkins" (1795-6). Then, in the first decades of the 19th century, a black American merchant named Paul Cuffe worked with Sharpe, Macaulay and William Allen to organize passage to Sierra Leone for a small number of free black Americans. See, for example, "Paul Cuffe’s Initial Attempts to Collaborate with the Sierra Leone Colony" (1809), A Brief Account of the Settlement and Present Situation of the Colony of Sierra Leone by Paul Cuffe (1812) and "Correspondence between Paul Cuffe and William Allen" (1815-16). Cuffe’s seven-year collaboration with the Sierra Leone colony paved the way for the 1816 launch of the American Colonization Society (ACS), the most well-known and controversial emigration organization of the antebellum era.
During the ACS's first decade, British influence on the organization was significant. In the "Opening Article of the African Repository of the American Colonization Society" (1825), the ACS acknowledged its debt to Great Britain and stated explicitly that it had modeled its Liberian colony on Sierra Leone. Beginning in 1817, the ACS's leaders had reached out to Sierra Leone's British sponsors, some of whom had worked with Cuffe, for advice and guidance on the ACS's nascent emigration plan. See, for example, “Excerpts from Three Letters from Ebenezer Burgess and Samuel Mills in London to the American Colonization Society” (1817-1818) and “Sketch of Sierra Leone” (1818). The ACS’s stated objective was essentially the same as that of the Sierra Leone settlement: to help free blacks forge a better life in Africa. The ACS's leaders also hoped to undermine slavery by encouraging slave emancipations. By facilitating the expatriation of emancipated slaves, they hoped to diminish slaveholder concerns about the negative effects ex-slaves would have on American society. At various points during the late 1810s and 1820s, the ACS put the idea of black emigration before Congress in an attempt to gain financial and legislative support. In general, Congress expressed an unwillingness to sponsor the ACS beyond utilizing it as a mechanism for expatriating slaves who were emancipated as part of the United States’s enforcement efforts against the international slave trade. For more information on the early relationship between Congress and the ACS, see “Congressional Report on Slave Trade and Colonization” (1818) and “Congressional Additions to 1807 Slave Trade Law" (1818). Ultimately, in 1821, the ACS purchased land on the west coast of Africa, not far from Sierra Leone, and established its Liberian colony.
Prior to the early 1830s when opposition to the ACS exploded, moderate amounts of support also came from European countries outside of Great Britain. See, for instance, “Letter from Count Schimmelman, former Minister of State in Denmark” (1818), “Letter from Theophilus Blumhardt (Swiss)” (1828) and “Article in the African Repository: ‘Swiss Mission to Liberia’” (1829).
During this early period, significant support for black emigration came from Haiti. This library includes two emigration invitations from the Haitian government that were directed to the American free black population. The first, published in 1818, was informal and appeared in an article in Niles' Weekly Register: refer to “Excerpt of Letter from Secretary General of Haiti in Niles' Weekly Register: ‘People of Color’”. The second, communicated in 1824, garnered more attention and was recorded in “Three Articles in Niles' Weekly Register on Emigration to Haiti” and Correspondence Relative to the Emigration to Hayti. The latter invitation was promoted in the United States by ACS official Loring Dewey, although according to the second 1824 document, Dewey was operating outside of his ACS function in filling the role of Haitian liaison (see Dewey's note at the bottom of page 8).
American reactions to Haitian influence were varied. Interestingly, although black antislavery leaders had strongly opposed the ACS's emigration program since its founding, several thousand free blacks accepted Haiti’s offer and emigrated between 1824 and 1826. The fact that a substantial portion did not ultimately remain in Haiti (7) suggests that this event did not affirm for the black community the concept of improving one’s station in life through emigration. Contemporary articles in the African Repository, the ACS’s official publication, suggest a mixed response from the organization's supporters: some members saw Haiti as a viable alternate emigration destination, while others saw Haitian emigration as competitive with the institution's agenda.(8) One interesting point made in multiple articles was that this event provided some validation of the institution’s claim that emigration appealed to the American free black community.(9) During the 1830s and 1840s, the institution's perspective seems to have become more uniformly negative. Disparaging remarks made in the African Repository indicate that the ACS increasingly saw Haitian emigration as a threat to its emigration agenda: see, for example, "Colonization in Canada and Hayti, Compared to Colonization in Liberia" (1832) and "The Commonwealth of Liberia" (1840). These documents also suggest that the idea of Haitian emigration remained a part of the ongoing black emigration debates during these decades even though the Haitian government did not issue another formal invitation until the late 1850s.
FOREIGN INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENTIOUS DEBATES REGARDING BLACK EMIGRATION, 1831-1865
The ACS and the concept of black emigration came under attack in the United States during the early 1830s. The British antislavery movement played a significant role in this trend through the publications and speeches of Charles Stuart, George Thompson, James Cropper and Daniel O’Connell (Irish). These men vigorously supported the newly formed American Anti-Slavery Society's (AASS) attempts to discredit the ACS and erode its membership. Notable documents included in this library are Stuart’s Remarks on the Colony of Liberia and the American Colonization Society (1832), the “Speech of Daniel O’Connell at the Great Anti-Colonization Meeting held at Exeter Hall, London” (1833), Cropper’s The Extinction of the American Colonization Society (1834) and the “Speech by George Thompson to the New-England Anti-Slavery Society” (1834). These publications catalyzed a number of responses from ACS members and supporters. Several are included in this library, such as Leonard Bacon’s Review of Pamphlets on Slavery and Colonization (1833) and ACS officer Ralph Gurley’s “Remarks on the Principles of the American Colonization Society” (1834).
During this time period, a portion of the news and influence flowing to the United States from Liberia supported these anti-emigration efforts. Two documents, in particular, demonstrate this trend: “Letters from James Temple (Liberian emigrant) Published in The Liberator” (1834) and the Examination of Thomas C. Brown (1834). Documents like these that presented negative firsthand accounts of the emigrant experience strongly supported the AASS's claim that the ACS did not prioritize the best interests of the American black population. The latter document is particularly interesting in that it records a lengthy debate between the AASS and the ACS conducted in a trial-like format. Although by the late 1830s, the AASS had reduced the intensity of its anti-ACS campaign - by this point, the ACS's reputation was seriously damaged - opponents of the ACS continued to facilitate the publication of reports from Liberia that tended to discourage emigration. Examples of these documents are included in the two Case Study collections entitled “Discouragement of Black Emigration by Liberian Residents and Visitors, 1825-1865" and “Negative Reports from Liberia regarding the Colony/Country’s Progress, 1825-1865.” See, for example, “Letter from Louis Richmond (Liberian emigrant) to Lewis Tappan Published in The Liberator” (1838), "Dismal Prospects of Liberia" (1842), and Four Months in Liberia; or, African Colonization Exposed by William Nesbit (1855).
From the early 1830s until 1865, however, a substantial amount of Liberian influence tended to encourage black emigration. When analyzing this large collection of documents, it is important to keep in mind the fact that Liberia was subordinate to the ACS up through 1846 and retained connections to the institution after its independence in 1847. Beginning in 1827 with the "Address of the Colonists to the Free People of Colour in the U.S." and continuing through the 1860s with the publications and speeches of Edward Blyden and Alexander Crummell, Liberian residents encouraged American free blacks to immigrate to Liberia. In addition to these documents, see, for instance, "To the Free Coloured People of the United States" by Beverly Wilson (1835), “Letter from Mr. Hanson to Elliott Cresson" (1839), “Letter from George Seymour to Ralph Pinney” (1851) and "Article in the African Repository: 'Letter from Augustus Washington'" (1859). Encouraging influence also came in the form of favorable reports regarding living conditions in Liberia or of the colony/nation’s general progress. Included in this library are news reports from the African Repository and pamphlets published by individuals who lived in Liberia for a period of time: for example, "Article in the African Repository: 'Latest from Liberia'" (1836), "Late Despatches from Liberia" (1842) and “Liberian Independence: Documents and Correspondence” (1848), all published in the African Repository, and The Looking Glass by Daniel Petersen (1854).
Liberian influence produced both favorable and hostile reactions within the United States. Relevant documents can be found in two sections of the Case Study area of this module: “Favorable Views in the United States and Europe of Liberian Progress, 1835-1865” and “Unfavorable Views in the United States and Europe of Liberian Progress, 1830-1865.” The first section includes A Concise History of the Commencement, Progress and Present Condition of The American Colonies of Liberia (1839) by Samuel Wilkeson, “Letter to the Editor of the National Era from a Southerner” (1847), “Letter to Frederick Douglass from Benjamin Coates” (1851), “Article in Frederick Douglass' Paper: ‘Speech of Mr. Miller, of N. Jersey, on the Expediency of Recognizing the Independence of Liberia, Delivered in the U.S. Senate, March 3 1853 (Excerpt)’” and "Interesting Correspondence between the Governor of Indiana and the President of Liberia” (1856). The second section draws mainly from black newspapers and the publications of black antislavery leaders. It includes documents such as “Article in The Colored American: ‘Resolutions of the People of Cleveland, on the Subject of African Colonization’" (1839), “Article in The North Star: ‘Liberia and the Slave Trade’" (1848) and The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States (Excerpt) by Martin Delany (1852).
One of the most interesting responses to Liberian influence was that after the colony's independence in 1847, some within the American black community began to see Liberia in a more favorable light.(10) This trend coincided with and reinforced growing interest in emigration, a shift in sentiment among American blacks that was precipitated by anti-black legislation like the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law and that was memorialized in a series of publications and conventions such as the 1854 "National Emigration Convention": see The Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People (1854). Though some still disparaged Liberia because of its association with the ACS, black antislavery leaders like Martin Delany and Henry Highland Garnet began to characterize the new nation as an important symbol of the black race’s equivalent capacity for self-government and self-improvement. See, for example, Henry Highland Garnet's "Article in The North Star: 'Colonization and Emigration'" (1849) and Martin Delany's "Article in The North Star: 'Liberia'" (1849). The latter document also provides insights into the reservations that antislavery advocates who had long opposed emigration had regarding their evolving perspectives. Their writings also reveal Liberia's important role in the growing pan-Africanist consciousness that manifested during this time period within the black community of the United States and the broader Atlantic region.(11) As evidenced by Augustus Washington's "Article in the African Repository: 'African Colonization, by a Man of Color'" (1851) and Martin Delany's Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party (1861), among other included documents, the prospect of joining in a broad-based effort to rehabilitate Africa was a powerful motivation to emigrate. Several publications and speeches of Edward Blyden and Alexander Crummell, two of the most influential Liberian emigrants, utilized this same connection between Liberia and pan-Africanism in their efforts to promote black emigration. See, for example, Blyden's "Hope for Africa" (1862) and Crummell's The Future of Africa (1862).
During the 1850s and 1860s, the Haitian government reemerged as an active proponent of American black emigration. Two of this movement’s main promoters were James Theodore Holly, one of the leaders of the 1854 National Emigration Convention, and James Redpath, a Scottish immigrant to the United States who became the Haitian government's official emigration liaison. As part of their efforts, Holly and Redpath respectively published A Vindication of the Capacity of the Negro Race for Self-Government, and Civilized Progress (1857) and A Guide to Hayti (1861), both included in this collection. During the early 1860s, the Haitian government also advertised its emigration invitation in Douglass' Monthly: refer to the “Recurring Advertisement from the Haitian Government Encouraging Emigration in Douglass' Monthly” (1862).
The majority of the reactions to Haitian emigration documented in this library carry a negative tone. See, for example, “Article in Douglass' Monthly: ‘Haytian Emigration Again’" by John Jones (1859), “Letter on Haytien Emigration” by William Lloyd Garrison (1861), “Two articles in the African Repository that Compare Haiti and Liberia as Emigration Destinations” (1861) and “Account of the 1863 Anti-Colonization Meeting in New York” (1863). These publications indicate that opposition came from within the antislavery movement, the black community and the ACS, the longstanding advocate of black emigration. However, it is important to remember that a segment of the American black population accepted Haiti's offer.(12) This fact alone caused black antislavery leaders who opposed the movement to temper their criticisms. Another factor that qualified their opposition was Haiti's ongoing importance as a symbol of black self-government and societal equality. The best documentary examples of this complex reaction can be found in four articles written by Frederick Douglass in 1861: "Emigration to Hayti," “Letter to the Editor of Douglass' Monthly regarding Haitian Emigration, with a Response,” "A Trip to Hayti" and "The Haytian Emigration Movement," all published in Douglass' Monthly. They indicate that although he strongly believed that black Americans should remain in the United States and continue the fight for equal rights and against slavery, he acknowledged Haiti's symbolic importance and sympathized with the desire to escape the constraints of American racism. In the last editorial, however, he makes abundantly clear that he opposes the national bureaucratic machine that has mobilized behind the Haitian emigration movement, asserting that its rhetoric and agenda have come to resemble that of the ACS.
Finally, though British antislavery advocates generally opposed American black emigration and the ACS after 1830, support from Great Britain did manifest in two forms during this later period: ongoing letters and publications from a few British loyalists and British assistance for black emigration projects during the 1850s and 1860s. With respect to the first category, one of the most loyal defenders was Thomas Hodgkin. Included in this library are his An Inquiry into the Merits of the American Colonization Society (1833), “To the American Delegates to the Anti-Slavery Convention, Held in London” (1840) and “Letter from Thomas Hodgkin to Elliott Cresson" (1848). Other documents that evidence ongoing British support are: “A Vindication of the American Colonization Society and the Colony of Liberia (Excerpt)” (1833), “Letter from Great Britain to the African Repository" (1843) and “Letter from Martin Tupper to Elliott Cresson” (1848). Of particular interest is the “Article in the African Repository: ‘Letter of the Venerable Thomas Clarkson, on Colonization’” (1832). It articulates a supportive position, albeit a qualified one, that he later reverses in an 1840 letter published in an American newspaper: “Article in The Liberator: 'Thomas Clarkson’s Renunciation of the American Colonization Society.'” Representative documents for the second category of British support include: “Expedition to Africa, to Promote the Cultivation of Cotton and other Products of Slave Labour, by Emigrants from America” (1859), “Speech by Henry Highland Garnet Delivered at the Music Hall, Birmingham England October 15, 1861” and “Discussion of British Support for Black Emigration in Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party” (1861) by Martin Delany.
Note on Dates in Documents Names: For all letters and other types of correspondence, unless otherwise noted, the indicated year is the year when the document was written. For all publications, unless otherwise noted, the indicated year is the year of the first edition published in the United States. For speeches, petitions and all other documents, unless otherwise noted, the indicated year is the year when the document was written or when the associated event took place.
COLLABORATION WITH GREAT BRITAIN AND ITS SIERRA LEONE COLONY, 1787-1815
“African Colonization”; Letter from Thomas Jefferson to J. L______ (Excerpt) - 1811 (1817 publication); mentions conversations he had with British antislavery advocates, through Rufus King, regarding Sierra Leone as a destination
ENCOURAGING INFLUENCES FROM LIBERIA, HAITI AND EUROPE DURING THE EARLY YEARS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY (ACS), 1816-1830
“Free People of Color. Report on Colonizing the Free People of Color of the United States, House of Representatives, Feb. 11” - 1817; articulates Congress’s approval to relocate American free blacks to Sierra Leone
Correspondence Relative to the Emigration to Hayti, of the Free People of Colour, in the United States - 1824; documents the correspondence of Loring Dewey, American Colonization Society (ACS) official, and the Haitian government
History of the American Colony in Liberia, from December 1821 to 1823 by Jehudi Ashmun (white Liberian official) - 1826; describes the challenges encountered by the first group of colonists and praises their strength of character
Article in the African Repository: "John Russwurm's [Liberian emigrant] Letter" - 1830; includes excerpts from his letter to "a young man of colour, now preparing himself for missionary efforts in Africa"
FOREIGN SUPPORT FOR BLACK EMIGRATION AS THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY (ACS) COMES UNDER ATTACK, 1831-1846
Article in the African Repository: "Colonization in Canada and Hayti, Compared to Colonization in Liberia" - 1832; argues in favor of Liberia and asserts that Haitian emigration has largely stopped and that many emigrants have returned
Yaradee; A Plea for Africa, being Familiar Conversations on the Subject of Slavery and Colonization by Frederick Freeman - 1836; an endorsement of Liberia and the efforts of the American Colonization Society (ACS), see chapters 21-30
Articles on Liberia from the African Repository - 1838; contains two endorsements of Liberian progress from other newspapers and a description of native superstition meant to affirm the need for Christian proselytizing
Letter from R. McDowall (American doctor who lived in Liberia for four years) to the Editor of the Christian Statesman - 1838; strongly supports the progress that can be attained if Americans increase their support for the American Colonization Society (ACS)
A Concise History of the Commencement, Progress and Present Condition of The American Colonies of Liberia by Samuel Wilkeson - 1839; a generally favorable account of Liberian progress intended to counterbalance the effect of anti-colonization publications
Letter from Mr. Hanson (native African educated in Great Britain and now living in Liberia as a missionary) to Elliott Cresson - 1839; encourages the American Colonization Society (ACS) to continue and expand their missionary efforts in Africa
Mission to England, in Behalf of the American Colonization Society by Ralph Gurley - 1841; describes Gurley's largely unsuccessful attempt to regain British support for the American Colonization Society (ACS)
Letter from Great Britain to the African Repository - 1843; expresses support for the American Colonization Society's (ACS) efforts in Liberia and regret that Great Britain and the ACS have had a contentious relationship
Article in the African Repository: "Liberia. Considerations for the Approaching Annual Meeting of the Society" - 1844; a history of Liberia that focuses on the colony's commercial prospects and moral character
ENCOURAGING INFLUENCES FROM LIBERIA, THE CARIBBEAN AND EUROPE DURING A PERIOD OF RESURGENT INTEREST IN BLACK EMIGRATION, 1847-1865
Article in The North Star: "Colonization and Emigration.____H.H. Garnet's Reply to S.S. Ward" - 1849; defends his changing feelings about colonization and emphasizes the importance of Liberia to the antislavery cause
Letter from George Seymour (Liberian emigrant) to Ralph Pinney of the New York Colonization Society - 1851; calls on free blacks in the United States to immigrate to Liberia and support the "redemption" of Africa
Article in the African Repository: "African Colonization, by a Man of Color" by Augustus Washington - 1851; an endorsement by an American free black of the American Colonization Society (ACS) and the cause of Liberia
"Political Destiny of the Colored Race, on the American Continent. to the Colored Inhabitants of the United States" by Martin Delany, et al - 1854; asserts that American free blacks can gain equal rights only by emigrating
“Expedition to Africa, to Promote the Cultivation of Cotton and other Products of Slave Labour, by Emigrants from America” - 1859; advertisement in Britain that seeks financial support for American black emigration
Article in Douglass' Monthly: "The Colored People and Hayti" by Henry Highland Garnet, James Theodore Holly, et al – 1861; a strong endorsement of Haitian emigration with an invitation from the Haitian government included in the text
Discussion of Liberia in Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party by Martin Delany (Excerpt) - 1861; describes support provided by Liberia to Delany's expedition and offers a revised, more positive view of Liberian progress
FOREIGN OPPOSITION TO THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY (ACS) AND LIBERIAN EMIGRATION, 1831-1846
Letter from Joseph Phillips (British) to William Lloyd Garrison - 1832; criticizes the American Colonization Society (ACS) and Elliott Cresson, an ACS agent who was in Great Britain promoting the society
Examination of Thomas C. Brown (former Liberian emigrant) - 1834; a lengthy interview conducted by representatives of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) and the American Colonization Society (ACS)
REACTION: “Remarks on the Principles of the American Colonization Society” by Reverend Ralph Gurley – 1834; includes a response to James Cropper’s (British) The Extinction of the American Colonization Society
Article in The Liberator: "Review. The American Colonization Society Further Unravelled by Charles Stuart (British)" - 1834; includes a direct response to pro-colonization publications of Thomas Hodgkin (British)
REACTION: Letter from Robert Breckenridge to Reverend Wardlaw (British) - 1836; Breckenridge responds to a speech in which Wardlaw praises George Thompson's (British) performance in his debate with Breckinridge
Letter from Louis Richmond (Liberian emigrant) to Lewis Tappan Published in The Liberator - 1838; presents a very negative view of conditions in Liberia and of the behavior of American Colonization Society (ACS) officials in Liberia
Article in The Colored American: "The African Civilization Society and the American Colonization Society. from Sir Thomas Powell Buxton [British], Baronet, to the Rev. R.R. Gurley, Secretary of the American Colonization Society" - 1840
Letter from Robert Johnston (Irish) to an American Methodist - 1841; criticizes the American Methodist Church for continuing to support colonization and condemns the Maryland Colonization Society’s willingness to support forced emigration
RESISTANCE TO THE RENEWED INTEREST IN LIBERIAN AND HAITIAN EMIGRATION, 1847-1865
The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States (Excerpt) by Martin Delany - 1852; argues that Liberia is still effectively subordinate to the American Colonization Society (ACS)
Article in Frederick Douglass' Paper: "A Dark Picture. Liberia as It Is" by Augustus Washington (Liberian emigrant) - 1854; strong criticism of Liberia that contrasts his 1851 "African Colonization" article
Excerpt from The Two-Fold Slavery of the United States with a Plan for Self-Emancipation by Marshall Hall (British) – 1854; asserts that the efforts of the American Colonization Society (ACS) are impractical and misguided
Four Months in Liberia; or, African Colonization Exposed by William Nesbit (former Liberian emigrant) - 1855; he asserts that he was misled by the American Colonization Society (ACS) regarding Liberia
Article in Douglass' Monthly: "The Haytian Emigration Movement" - 1861; Douglass criticizes the Haitian emigration movement because he feels its agenda and rhetoric have come to resemble that of the American Colonization Society (ACS)
Article in Douglass' Monthly: "Emigration to Hayti" - 1861; opposes black emigration but sympathizes with the desire to emigrate - strongly recommends Haiti over Africa for those who choose to emigrate
2 George M. Fredrickson, The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914 (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press; Distributed by Harper & Row, 1987), chapter 1.
8 See, for example, "From a Member of the Society of Friends in North Carolina. May 14, 1826," in African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 2 (Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1827). and "From a Member of the Society of Friends, North Carolina. November 11th, 1826," in African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 2 (Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1827).
9 American Colonization Society., The Ninth Annual Report of the Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States (Washington D.C.: Printed by Way and Gideon, 1826), 8; ———, "Mr. Tazewell's Report," in African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 4 (Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1829), 336-37.