Black Emigration Movements - Foreign Support and Opposition, 1787-1865

bibliography

The following bibliography contains a full record for every document contained in Module 2:  Black Emigration Movements - Foreign Support and Opposition, 1787-1865.  Some of the "pdf" files contain multiple documents and thus correspond to multiple bibliographic references.  The bibliography does not specify which documents came from online sources such as Google Books or other online databases.  Instead, online source information has been embedded in the actual document files.  It does, however, indicate which documents came from published anthologies. 

The bibliography also includes records for all secondary sources that were utilized in the development of this module.  The following works were the most valuable.

Campbell, James T. Middle Passages : African American Journeys to Africa, 1787-2005, The Penguin History of American Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2006.

Cuffe, Paul, and Rosalind Cobb Wiggins. Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil". Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

Fredrickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press; Distributed by Harper & Row, 1987.

Miller, Floyd John. The Search for a Black Nationality:  Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787-1863, Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975.

Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.

 

 

"Anti-Colonization Meeting ". The Liberator, June 12, 1863.

"British Pretensions." Maryland Colonization Journal 3, no. 3 (1843): 40-43.

"Colonization of the Blacks (June 26 1824)." In Niles Weekly Register, from March to September, 1824, Volume 26, edited by H. Niles, 270-73. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1824.

"Colored Americans - Emigration to Jamaica." Frederick Douglass' Paper, August 6, 1852.

"Cotton and Hayti." Douglass' Monthly, March 1861.

"Debate between George Thompson and Ralph Gurley on the Acs." The Liberator, June 6, 1835.

"Emigration of the Free Blacks (July 3 1824)." In Niles Weekly Register, from March to September, 1824, Volume 26, edited by H. Niles, 287-89. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1824.

"Emigration to Hayti." Douglass' Monthly, January 1861.

Examination of Thomas C. Brown, a Free Colored Citizen of S. Carolina, as to the Actual State of Things in Liberia in the Years 1833 and 1834. New York: S.W. Benedict and Co., 1834.

"Excerpts from the Black Anti-Colonization Meeting in New York." The Liberator, May 11, 1849

"Free People of Color. Report on Colonizing the Free People of Color of the United States, House of Representatives, Feb. 11 (April 12 1817)." In Niles Weekly Register, from March to September, 1817, Volume 12, edited by H. Niles, 296-97. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1817.

"Free Thoughts - No. 1. By a Citizen of the South." The National Era, February 11, 1847.

"Friday, March 18 - Congressional Debate Regarding Paul Cuffe's Petition (April 2 1814)." In Niles Weekly Register, from March to September, 1814, Volume 6, edited by H. Niles, 78. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1814.

"Haytian Emigration Again." Douglass' Monthly, May 1859.

"Letter on Haytien Emigration, May 13 1861." The Liberator, May 17, 1861.

"Letter from Great Britain to the African Repository, April 12 1843." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 20, 23-25. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1844.

"Letter to the Editor of Douglass' Monthly Regarding Haitian Emigration, with a Response." Douglass' Monthly, March 1861.

"Liberia and the Slave Trade." The North Star, September 29, 1848.

"Liberian Independence: Documents and Correspondence." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 24, 1-30. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1848.

"Migration to Hayti (July 17 1824)." In Niles Weekly Register, from March to September, 1824, Volume 26, edited by H. Niles, 327-28. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1824.

"News from Liberia!!". The Liberator, December 7, 1838.

"People of Color (October 17 1818)." In Niles Weekly Register, from September, 1818 to March, 1819, Volume 15, edited by H. Niles, 117-18. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1818.

"Picture of Liberia!". The Liberator, May 31, 1834.

Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People; Held at Cleveland, Ohio, on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, the 24th, 25th and 26th of August, 1854. Pittsburgh: A.A. Anderson (printer), 1854.

"Recurring Advertisement from the Haitian Government Encouraging Emigration." Douglass' Monthly, March 1862.

"Resolutions of the People of Cleveland, on the Subject of African Colonization ". The Colored American, March 2, 1839.

"Review of the Future of Africa ". Douglass' Monthly, July 1862.

"The Slave Trade (July 20 1822)." In Niles Weekly Register, from March to September, 1822, Volume 22, edited by H. Niles, 325-27. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1822.

"Speech by George Thompson to the New-England Anti-Slavery Society." The Liberator, October 18, 1834.

"Starvation and Distress, and the Slave Trade in Liberia." The Liberator, November 19, 1836.

"Thomas Hodgkin and Colonization." The Colored American, October 31, 1840.

Allen, William G. "Letter from William Allen to Paul Cuffe, May 6 1815." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 354-56. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

———. "Letter from William Allen to Paul Cuffe, November 11 1815 (?)." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 405-08. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

American Colonization Society. "Sketch of Sierra Leone." In The Second Annual Report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States 72-77 Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1819.

———. "American Colonization Society." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 1, 1-5. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1826.

———. "Swiss Mission to Liberia." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 5, 284-87. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1830.

———. "Intelligence. Report from Hayti." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 5, 61-63. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1830.

———. "John Russwurm's Letter." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 6, 59-61. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1831.

———. "Letters from Colonists [Eliza Hatter and Andrew Green]." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 8, 280-82. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1833.

———. "Colonization in Canada and Hayti, Compared to Colonization in Liberia." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 8, 225-29. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1833.

———. "The Protest." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 9, 257-65. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1834.

———. "Defence of the Colonization Society." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 9, 267-71. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1834.

———. "Latest from Liberia." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 12, 169-76. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1836.

———. "Articles on Liberia." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 14, 169-72. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1838.

———. "The Commonwealth of Liberia." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 16, 97-99. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1840.

———. "The Commonwealth of Liberia [Contd.]." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 16, 113-15. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1840.

———. "Late Despatches from Liberia." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 18, 253-58. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1842.

———. "Liberia. Considerations for the Approaching Annual Meeting of the Society." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 20, 1-23. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1844.

———. "Citizens of Liberia in the United States." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 24, 259-61. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1848.

———. "Recognition of Liberia by France and England." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 25, 7-10. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1849.

———. "Prospects of Our Free Colored Population." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 37, 86-87 Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1861.

———. "Emigration to Haiti Vs. Liberia." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 37, 221. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1861.

———. "The President's Message. Liberian Independence." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 37, 375. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1861.

Armistead, Wilson. Calumny Refuted by Facts from Liberia. Presented to the Boston Anti-Slavery Bazaar, U.S. London, Philadelphia, New York: Charles Gilpin, G.W. Taylor (Philadelphia), William Harned (New York), 1848.

Ashmun, J. History of the American Colony in Liberia, from December 1821 to 1823. Washington D.C.: Printed by Way & Gideon, 1826.

Bacon, Leonard. Review of Pamphlets on Slavery and Colonization, Second Edition. New Haven: A. H. Maltby, 1833.

Barbados Colonization Society. "Letter from Barbados Colonization Society to His Excellency President Roberts, President of the Republic of Liberia (May 16 1848)." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 24, 240-42. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1848.

Bevans, J., and American Colonization Society. "A Vindication of the American Colonization Society and the Colony of Liberia (1833) " In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 9, 272-73. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1834.

Blumhardt, Dr. "Letter from the Reverend Dr. Blumhardt." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 3, 361-64. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1828.

Blyden, Edward Wilmot. "Liberia as She Is; and the Present Duty of Her Citizens. The Annual Address before the Common Council, and the Citizens of Monrovia, Liberia, July 27th, 1857 - Being the Celebration of the National Independence." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 33, 326-36. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1857.

———. "Hope for Africa. A Discourse, Delivered in the Presbyterian Church, Seventh Avenue, New York, July 21, 1861." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 37, 258-71. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1861.

———. Liberia's Offering: Being Addresses, Sermons, Etc. New York: J. A. Gray, 1862.

Breckinridge, Robert. "Letter from Robert Breckenridge to Reverend Wardlaw, August 20 1836 " The Liberator, November 26, 1836

Burgess, Ebenezer, and Samuel Mills. "Three Letters from Ebenezer Burgess and Samuel Mills and in London to the American Colonization Society (Excerpts), December 30 1817, January 16 1818 and January 17 1818 " In The Second Annual Report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States 69-70 Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1819.

Buxton, Thomas Powell. "The African Civilization Society and the American Colonization Society. From Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Baronet, to the Rev. R.R. Gurley, Secretary of the American Colonization Society." The Colored American, February 27, 1841.

Campbell, James T. Middle Passages : African American Journeys to Africa, 1787-2005, The Penguin History of American Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2006.

Campbell, Robert. A Pilgrimmage to My Motherland. An Account of a Journey among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-1860. New York: Thomas Hamilton, 1861.

———. "Expedition to Africa, to Promote the Cultivation of Cotton and Other Products of Slave Labour, by Emigrants from America (1859)." In The Black Abolitionist Papers, edited by C. Peter Ripley, 447-48. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Clarkson, Thomas. "Letter of the Venerable Thomas Clarkson, on Colonization (1832)." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 8, 257-66. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1833.

———. "Thomas Clarkson’s Renunciation of the American Colonization Society." The Liberator, September 25, 1840.

Clay, Henry. "Letter from Henry Clay to Thomas Hankey, May 10 1851 " Maryland Colonization Journal 6, no. 4 (1851): 61-62

Coates, Benjamin. Cotton Cultivation in Africa : Suggestions on the Importance of the Cultivation of Cotton in Africa, in Reference to the Abolition of Slavery in the United States, through the Organization of an African Civilization Society. Philadelphia: Printed by C. Sherman & Son, 1858.

———. "Letter to Frederick Douglass from Benjamin Coates, January 1 1851." The North Star, January 16, 1851.

Count Schimmelman. "Letter from Count Schimmelman, Former Minister of State in Denmark, to Samuel Mills and Ebenezer Burgess and Samuel Mills of the American Colonization Society, March 2 1818 " In The Second Annual Report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States 68-69 Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1819.

Cropper, James. "The Extinction of the American Colonization Society; the First Step toward the Abolition of American Slavery " The Liberator, February 22, 1834.

Crummell, Alexander. "The Duty of a Rising Christian State to Contribute to the World's Well Being and Civilization, and the Meaning by Which It May Perform the Same: The Annual Oration, Delivered before the Common Council and Citizens of Monrovia, July 26th, 1855 - Being the Day of National Independence." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 33, 311-14. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1857.

———. "Address of Rev. Alexander Crummell, at the Anniversary Meeting of the Massachusetts Colonization Society May 29, 1861." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 37, 271-80. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1861.

———. The Future of Africa. New York: C. Scribner, 1862.

Cuffe, Paul. "Paul Cuffe - Petition to Congress (January 22 1814)." In Niles Weekly Register, from September, 1813, to March, 1814, Volume 5, edited by H. Niles, 338-39. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1814.

———. "Letter from Paul Cuffe to John James and Alexander Wilson, June 10 1809." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 80-81. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

———. "Letter from Paul Cuffe to William Allen, April 1 1816." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 408-12. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

———. "Letter from Paul Cuffe to William Allen, March 13 1813." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 326-27. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

Cuffe, Paul, and Rosalind Cobb Wiggins. Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil". Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford, England ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Delany, Martin Robison. "Liberia." The North Star, March 2, 1849.

———, et al. "Political Destiny of the Colored Race, on the American Continent. To the Colored Inhabitants of the United States." In Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People; Held at Cleveland, Ohio, on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, the 24th, 25th and 26th of August, 1854. Pittsburgh: A.A. Anderson (printer), 1854.

———. Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party. New York: T. Hamilton, 1861.

———. "Section 4. Arrival and Reception in Liberia and Section 5. Liberia: Climate, Soils, Productions, Etc." In Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party, 16-26. New York: T. Hamilton, 1861.

———. "Section 14. Success in Great Britain and Section 15. Commercial Relations in Scotland." In Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party, 62-72. New York: T. Hamilton, 1861.

———. "Letter from Martin Delany to Douglass' Monthly." Douglass' Monthly, September 1862.

———. "Chapter 18. 'Republic of Liberia'." In The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States., 160-73. New York: Arno Press, 1968.

Dillwyn, William. "Letter from William Dillwyn to John James and Alexander Wilson, August 30 1809." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 83. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

Douglass, Frederick. "A Trip to Hayti." Douglass' Monthly, May 1861.

———. "The Haytian Emigration Movement." Douglass' Monthly, July 1861.

Douglass, Frederick, Philip Sheldon Foner, and Yuval Taylor. Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings. 1st ed, The Library of Black America. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1999.

Duke of Gloucester. "Letter from the Duke of Gloucester, President of the African Institution, to Bushrod Washington, President of the American Colonization Society, January 29 1818 " In The Second Annual Report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States 67 Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1819.

Duncan, Henry. "Answer to the Wilberforce Protest, September 9 1833." In The Colonizationist and Journal of Freedom, 264-68. Boston: Geo. W. Light, 1834.

Finley, Robert. "Thoughts on the Colonization of Free Blacks (1815)." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 9, 332-35 Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1834.

Fladeland, Betty. Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972.

Fredrickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press; Distributed by Harper & Row, 1987.

Freeman, Frederick. Yaradee: A Plea for Africa, in Familiar Conversations on the Subject of Slavery and Colonization. Philadelphia: J. Whetham, 1836.

Garnet, Henry Highland. "Letter from Henry Highland Garnet to Julia Garnet, September 13 1861 " In The Black Abolitionist Papers, edited by C. Peter Ripley, 497-99. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

———. "Letter from Henry Highland Garnet to Henry Wilson, September 27 1861 " In The Black Abolitionist Papers, edited by C. Peter Ripley, 501-03. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

———. "Speech by Henry Highland Garnet Delivered at the Music Hall, Birmingham England October 15, 1861." In The Black Abolitionist Papers, edited by C. Peter Ripley, 515-18. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Garnet, Henry Highland, et al. "The Colored People and Hayti " Douglass' Monthly, January 1861.

Garnet, Henry Highland. "Colonization and Emigration.____H.H. Garnet's Reply to S.S. Ward." The North Star, March 2, 1849.

Garrison, William Lloyd. "Summary of William Lloyd Garrison’s Trip to England." The Liberator, October 12, 1833.

Goodman, Paul. Of One Blood: Abolitionism and the Origins of Racial Equality. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Gurley, Ralph Randolph. "Remarks on the Principles of the American Colonization Society." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 10, 65-72. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1834.

———. Letter to the Hon. Henry Clay, President of the American Colonization Society, and, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Chairman of the General Committee of the African Civilization Society, on the Colonization and Civilization of Africa. London: Wiley and Putman, 1841.

Gurley, Ralph Randolph, and American Colonization Society. Mission to England, in Behalf of the American Colonization Society. Washington: W. W. Morrison, 1841.

Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Liberia; or, Mr. Peyton's Experiments. New York: Harper & brothers, 1853.

Hall, Marshall. The Two-Fold Slavery of the United States; with a Project of Self-Emancipation. London,: A. Scott, 1854.

———. "Preface, Letter 1 and Letter 8." In The Two-Fold Slavery of the United States; with a Project of Self-Emancipation, ix-x, 1-9, 54-58. London: A. Scott, 1854.

Hanson, ? "Letter from Mr. Hanson to Elliott Cresson, August 17 1839." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 16, 100-02. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1840.

Hoare, Prince. Memoirs of Granville Sharp, Esq. Composed from His Own Manuscripts, and Other Authentic Documents in the Possession of His Family and of the African Institution. 2 vols. London: Printed for H. Colburn, 1828.

Hodgkin, Thomas. An Inquiry into the Merits of the American Colonization Society: And a Reply to the Charges Brought against It. With an Account of the British African Colonization Society. London,: J. & A. Arch [etc.], 1833.

———. "To the American Delegates to the Anti-Slavery Convention, Held in London, June 1840." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 16, 311-13. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1840.

———. "Letter from Thomas Hodgkin to Elliott Cresson, April 24 1848." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 24, 214-15. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1848.

Holly, James Theodore. A Vindication of the Capacity of the Negro Race for Self-Government, and Civilized Progress, as Demonstrated by Historical Events of the Haytian Revolution; and the Subsequent Acts of That People since Their National Independence. New Haven: W. H. Stanley, printer, 1857.

Hopkins, Samuel. "Letter from Samuel Hopkins to John Erskine, January 14 1789." In The Works of Samuel Hopkins, edited by Edwards Amasa Park, v1, 143-44. Boston: Doctrinal Tract and Book Society, 1852.

———. "Letter from Samuel Hopkins to Moses Brown, March 7 1787." In The Works of Samuel Hopkins, edited by Edwards Amasa Park, v1, 139-40. Boston: Doctrinal Tract and Book Society, 1852.

———. "Letter from Reverend Samuel Hopkins to Granville Sharp, January 15 1789." In The Works of Samuel Hopkins, edited by Edwards Amasa Park, v1, 140-42. Boston: Doctrinal Tract and Book Society, 1852.

———. "Addendum to a Published Sermon Called a Discourse on the Slave Trade…May 17, 1793." In The Works of Samuel Hopkins, edited by Edwards Amasa Park, v1, 145-47. Boston: Doctrinal Tract and Book Society, 1852.

Hoyt, William B. Land of Hope. Reminiscences of Liberia and Cape Palmas, with Incidents of the Voyage. Hartford: Henry J. Fox and Wm. B. Hoyt, 1852.

James, John. "Letter from John James to Paul Cuffe, June 24 1809." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 83. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

James, John, and Alexander Wilson. "Letter from John James and Alexander Wilson to William Dillwyn, June 21 1809." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 81-82. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

Jefferson, Thomas. "African Colonization -- Extract of a Letter Dated January 21, 1811 (April 19 1817)." In Niles Weekly Register, from March to September, 1817, Volume 12, edited by H. Niles, 122. Baltimore: Printed for the Editor by William Ogden Niles at the Franklin Press, 1817.

Johnston, Robert. "Letter from Robert Johnston to an American Methodist, October 4 1841." The Liberator, January 7, 1842

Levine, Robert S. Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Macaulay, Zachary. "Letter from Zachary Macaulay to Samuel Hopkins, March 19 1795." In The Works of Samuel Hopkins, edited by Edwards Amasa Park, v1, 150-51. Boston: Doctrinal Tract and Book Society, 1852.

———. "Letter from Zachary Macaulay to Samuel Hopkins, October 20 1796." In The Works of Samuel Hopkins, edited by Edwards Amasa Park, v1, 151-53. Boston: Doctrinal Tract and Book Society, 1852.

———. "Letter from Zachary Macaulay to William Dillwyn, August 29 1809." In Captain Paul Cuffe's Logs and Letters, 1808-1817: A Black Quaker's "Voice from within the Veil", edited by Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, 84-85. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

Massachusetts Sabbath School Society. The New Republic. Boston: Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, 1851. Reprint, Second Edition.

McDowall, R. "Letter from R. Mcdowall to the Editor of the Christian Statesman, July 3 1838." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 14, 201-06. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1838.

Miller, ? "Speech of Mr. Miller, of N. Jersey, on the Expediency of Recognizing the Independence of Liberia, Delivered in the U.S. Senate, March 3 1853 (Excerpt)." Frederick Douglass’ Paper, March 25, 1853.

Miller, Floyd John. The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787-1863, Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975.

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. Liberian Dreams : Back-to-Africa Narratives from the 1850s. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998.

Nesbit, William. "Four Months in Liberia; or, African Colonization Exposed." In Liberian Dreams : Back-to-Africa Narratives from the 1850s, edited by Wilson Jeremiah Moses, 79-126. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998.

Newman, Richard S. The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

O'Connell, Daniel. "Speech of Daniel O’connell at the Great Anti-Colonization Meeting Held at Exeter Hall, London, July 13 1833 " The Liberator, November 23, 1833.

Pease, Jane H., and William Henry Pease. They Who Would Be Free: Blacks' Search for Freedom, 1830-1861. 1st ed, Studies in American Negro Life. New York: Atheneum, 1974.

Peterson, Daniel H. The Looking-Glass: Being a True Report and Narrative of the Life, Travels and Labors of the Rev. Daniel H. Peterson, a Colored Clergyman; Embracing a Period of Time from the Year 1812 to 1854, and Including His Visit to Western Africa. New York,: Wright, printer, 1854.

Phillips, Joseph. "Letter from Joseph Phillips, September 16 1832." The Liberator, December 15, 1832.

Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Ralston, Gerald. "Letter from Gerald Ralston, Esq., in London, to Elliott Cresson, Esq., May 4 1849 " Maryland Colonization Journal 5, no. 1 (1849): 13-14.

Redpath, James. A Guide to Hayti. New York: G. Woolworth Colton, 1861.

———. "The Annexation of St. Domingo to Spain, Redpath's Views on the Subject." Douglass' Monthly, May 1861.

Richards, Leonard L. Gentlemen of Property and Standing: Anti-Abolition Mobs in Jacksonian America, A Galaxy Book. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Ripley, C. Peter. The Black Abolitionist Papers. 5 vols. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Rugemer, Edward Bartlett. The Problem of Emancipation: The Caribbean Roots of the American Civil War, Antislavery, Abolition, and the Atlantic World. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008.

Rutherford, Thomas. "Letter from Thomas Rutherford, April 2 1851 " In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 27, 214-16. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1851.

Seymour, George. "Letter from George Seymour to Rev. J.B. Pinney, March 21 1851." In African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 27, 266-67. Washington D.C.: American Colonization Society, 1851.

Sharp, Granville. Letter from Granville Sharp, Esq., of London: To the Maryland Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Relief of Free Negroes and Others, Unlawfully Held in Bondage. Baltimore: Printed by D. Graham, L. Yundt, and W. Patton... 1793.

———. "Letter from Granville Sharp to John Jay, March 17 1789." In Memoirs of Granville Sharp, Esq. Composed from His Own Manuscripts, and Other Authentic Documents in the Possession of His Family and of the African Institution, edited by Prince Hoare, v2, 116-19. London: Printed for H. Colburn, 1828.

———. "Letter from Granville Sharp to Samuel Hopkins, July 25 1789." In The Works of Samuel Hopkins, edited by Edwards Amasa Park, v1, 142-43. Boston: Doctrinal Tract and Book Society, 1852.

Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.

Stuart, Charles. Remarks on the Colony of Liberia and the American Colonization Society with Some Account of the Settlement of Coloured People at Wilberforce, Upper Canada. 16 p. vols. London: Printed by J. Messeder, 1832.

———. "Review. The American Colonization Society Further Unravelled." The Liberator, April 19, 1834.

———. "Prejudice Vincible." The Liberator, March 30, 1833.

———. "Letter from Charles Stuart to the Editor of the New York Observer " The Liberator, November 26, 1836

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